The developing world suffers most the impacts of climate change. The need for having more robust, inclusive and sustainable adaptation options has been emphasized in the Paris Agreement and the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The role of natural resource management in supporting adaptation in developing countries is critical. About 41 per cent of the world’s population, who are the poorest, inhabit dryland regions and depend heavily on natural resources to support their livelihoods.
In the developing countries, high reliance on natural resources and limited adaptive capacities result in high levels of vulnerabilities among the communities. Climate variability and change add to the existing pressures that impinge upon livelihoods and well-being in the developing world. Well implemented participatory watershed development has been proven to improve the quality of the natural resource base and enhance the livelihoods of the local communities. However, the climate variability experienced reduces the resilience of the people and the positive impacts that watershed development achieves.