Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Systems in Watershed Development: Case Studies of Applied Tools

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Watershed development is one of the largest developmental interventions in the country in terms of resources, geographical spread and agencies involved. The investments in watershed development programmes (Drought Prone Areas Programme – DPAP, Desert Development Programme – DDP and Integrated Watershed Development Programme – IWDP) through the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) alone are estimated to be Rs. 11,526.85 crores during 1995 to 2005. These investments have increased considerably during the 10th Plan and the MoRDs (Department of Land Resources – DoLR) budget for the year 2005-06 is Rs.1,200 crores. This is beside the investments made by Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), bilateral agencies and other agencies and institutions. The major objective of almost all watershed development programmes revolves around sustainable improvement of the natural resource base in rainfed areas so as to enhance the livelihood opportunities of those who mainly depend on these resources. This objective is realized through a clearly defined set of socio-technical interventions in a demarcated geographical area/habitat. The components of intervention vary according to the project objective and design and they have evolved over time.

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