Nitrate and Fluoride in Groundwater
An Emerging threat in rural areas
An Emerging Threat of Nitrate And Flouride Groundwater
Natural resources are vital to human existence. People need clean water and fresh air in particular to exist on this planet. The two most important sources of water for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses are groundwater and surface water. One-third of the world’s population relies on groundwater for their daily needs, primarily for drinking, due to a scarcity of surface water. Groundwater quality is gradually worsening as a result of natural environmental changes and human activities including agricultural and industrial activities, leading to a water shortage crisis and a variety of environmental issues. Since the last two decades, the nitrate and fluoride groundwater concentrations have increased the risk to human health.
The increasing nitrate concentrations in groundwater are a result of a variety of factors, including agricultural runoff, excessive fertiliser usage, improper septic system design, leaking city drains, slaughterhouses, dairy and poultry operations, manure systems, human and animal wastes, and more. High levels of nitrate in groundwater pdf have been discovered in built-up regions with lots of human and animal waste as well as agricultural areas with extensive usage of manure. Fluoride in drinking water is one of the main contributors to the fluorosis of dental enamel and the wrinkling of bones that affects people all over the world.
Fluorosis, dental decay, and skeletal fluorosis are all negative effects of fluoride in drinkable water at sufficient amounts. A high F content is frequently linked to conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, neurological conditions, thyroid problems, cancer, infertility, and hypertension. Fluoride in groundwater in India also alters the DNA structure and has an impact on the teeth and skeleton. Similar to this, nitrate (NO3) concentrations are frequently found in fertilisers that contain nitrogen. The nitrate level of water bodies can be increased by improper waste disposal, animal feedlots, dairy operations, agricultural land use, and landfill leachate. Animal and human health are both harmed by NO3 in drinking water. Read the publication to know more.